A BRIEF INTRODUCTION
I GEOGRAPHY AND DEMOGRAPHY
Weather and climate
The tyranny of distance
The variability and unpredictability of life in the pre-industrial world
Population and population density
Life expectancy, health and disease
Human labour power
The labour power of animals
Water and wind and their role in transport
Manure and night soil
Metals: iron and bullion
Frontiers and ghost acreages
Agricultural labour force, the share of agriculture in GDP and urbanisation
The importance of food in budgets
Agricultural systems: the example of China’s rice economy
Agricultural systems: the example of Great Britain’s wheat economy
What about Japan?
Slave trades and other involuntary migration
The demographic impact of European overseas migration
Chinese and Japanese overseas migration
The Columbian Exchange
Flows and stocks of bullion
Technology and relative scarcities
Intercontinental commodity trade
A modern world-system?
A sinocentric alternative to Eurocentrism?
Intercontinental trade as an almost exclusively European affair
VI STAGNATION AND GROWTH
The tension between population and resources
Preventive checks: The European marriage pattern and East-Asian alternatives
Sustainability in Tokugawa Japan
A world without growth?
Modern economic growth before the Industrial Revolution? The case of Song China, 976-127
Modern economic growth before the Industrial Revolution? The case of the Dutch Republic during its Golden Age
Sprouts of pre-modern growth?
VII SOURCES OF GROWTH? CHANGES IN PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT
Increased production and productivity in agriculture
Increased investment and micro-innovations
Improved human capital
A better measure of reality
Transport over land
Transport over water
Shipping on open seas
VIII SOURCES OF GROWTH? MARKETS AND STATES
Specialisation and market extension
Global market integration
A rise of capitalism?
A decline of the commons?
A decline of the guilds?
A rise of free labour?
Capitalists, capitalism, and the state
State formation, state capacity and empire
State formation and state capacity
Empire building, and imperial disintegration
IX THE GREAT DIVERGENCE
The emergence of a new economic regime
New energy and new technology
Railroads and steam shipping
The wider impact of the new economic regime
Great Divergence and fossil-fuel ghost acreage
Migration during the great diverging
Great Divergence, trade ghost acreage, and Great Specialisation
Regional differences, change and continuity
Investment and Great Divergence
Did the Dutch Republic, Qing China or Tokugawa Japan have sufficient financial resources to industrialise?