Irreverent Persia
Irreverent Persia
Invective, Satirical and Burlesque Poetry from the Origins to the Timurid Period (10th to 15th century)
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Table of Contents
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Notes on Transliteration System, Dates and Biographical Information
The Genre of Hajv (‘Satire’, ‘Mockery’, ‘Verbal Aggression’)
The Genre of Hazl (‘Witticism’, ‘Facetiae’, ‘Bawdy Poetry’)
Historical Background
Poetic Forms
Tradition of Studies
Authors and Texts
chapter 1 – Invective Poetry
Physical Images
Actions Involving the Victims of Satire
Imprecatory Poetry
Composite Poetry
chapter 2 – Satirical Poetry
Patrons and Ruling Classes
Court Milieu
Religious Context
Women as Habitual Subject for Satire
Satirising Members of a Family
Peoples and Towns
Addressees with no Social Labels
Behaviour and Customs
chapter 3 – Burlesque Poetry
Form and Content
Replies to Poems
Biographies of the Poets
Glossary of Key Literary Terms
Index of Names, Places and Works

Riccardo Zipoli

Irreverent Persia

Invective, Satirical and Burlesque Poetry from the Origins to the Timurid Period (10th to 15th century)

Poetry expressing criticism of social, political and cultural life is a vital integral part of Persian literary history. Its principal genres – invective, satire and burlesque – have been very popular with authors in every age. Despite the rich uninterrupted tradition, such texts have been little studied and rarely translated. Their irreverent tones range from subtle irony to crude direct insults, at times involving the use of outrageous and obscene terms. This anthology includes both major and minor poets from the origins of Persian poetry (10th century) up to the age of Jâmi (15th century), traditionally considered the last great classical Persian poet. In addition to their historical and linguistic interest, many of these poems deserve to be read for their technical and aesthetic accomplishments, setting them among the masterpieces of Persian literature.
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Riccardo Zipoli

Riccardo Zipoli is professor of Persian Language and Literature at Ca’ Foscari University, Venice, where he also teaches Conceiving and Producing Photography.