British Foreign Secretaries and Japan, 1850-1990
British Foreign Secretaries and Japan, 1850-1990
Aspects of the Evolution of British Foreign Policy
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Introduction & Chapter Summaries HUGH CORTAZZI List of Contributors Abbreviations/ Names and Name Order 1. British Relations with Japan, 1852–2017: An Overview ANTONY BEST 2. Lord John Russell, 1792–1878 [lst Earl Russell] Foreign Secretary, 1852–53, 1859–69 ANDREW COBBING 3. Lord Clarendon, 1800–1870 [George William Villiers, 4th Earl of Clarendon] Foreign Secretary, 1853–58, 1865–66, 1868–70 ROBERT MORTON 4. Lord Granville, 1815–1891 [George Leveson Gower’ 2nd Earl Granville] Foreign Secretary, 1870–74, 1880–85 ANDREW COBBING 5. Lord Derby, 1826–1893 [Lord Stanley & 15th Earl of Derby] Foreign Secretary as Lord Stanley, 1866–68; as Lord Derby 1874–78 ROBERT MORTON & ANDREW COBBING 6. Lord Salisbury, 1830–1903 [3rd Marquess of Salisbury] Foreign Secretary, 1878–80, 1885–86, 1887–92, 1895–1900. Prime Minister, 1885–86, 1886–92, 1895–1902 THOMAS OTTE 7. Lord Rosebery, 1847–1929 [5th Earl of Rosebery] Foreign Secretary, 1886, 1892–94 Prime Minister, 1894–95 IAN NISH 8. Lord Kimberley, 1826–1902 [John Wodehouse, 1st Earl of Kimberley] Foreign Secretary, 1894–95 THOMAS OTTE 9. Lord Lansdowne, 1845–1927 [Henry Charles Keith Petty-Fitzmaurice, 5th Marquess of Lansdowne] Foreign Secretary, 1900–05 THOMAS OTTE 10. Sir Francis Bertie, 1844–1919 Key official in framing the Anglo-Japanese Alliance THOMAS OTTE 11. Sir Edward Grey, 1862–1933 [Viscount Grey of Falloden] Foreign Secretary, 1905–16 IAN NISH 12. Arthur James Balfour, 1848–1930 [lst Earl of Balfour] Foreign Secretary, 1916–19 Prime Minister, 1902–05 IAN NISH 13. Lord Curzon, 1859–1925 [George Nathaniel, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston] Foreign Secretary, 1919–24 IAN NISH 14. James Ramsay MacDonald, 1866–1937 Foreign Secretary, Prime Minister, 1929–31 JOHN FERRIS 15. Austen Chamberlain, 1863–1937 Foreign Secretary, 1924–29 Neville Chamberlain, 1869–1940 Prime Minister, 1937–40 ANTONY BEST 16. Sir John Simon, 1873–1954 [lst Viscount Simon] Foreign Secretary, 1931–35 ANTONY BEST 17. Lord Lytton, 1876–1947 [Victor Alexander George Robert Bulwer-Lytton, 2nd Earl of Lytton], A key role in advancing Anglo-Japanese Relations in the 1930s ANTONY BEST 18. Sir Samuel Hoare, 1880–1959 [Samuel Gurney, 1st Viscount Templewood] Foreign Secretary, June-December ANTONY BEST 19. Sir Anthony Eden, 1897–1977 [lst Earl of Avon] Foreign Secretary 1935–38, 1940–45, 1951–55 ANTONY BEST 20. Lord Halifax, 1881–1959 [Edward Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax] Foreign Secretary, 1938–40 ANTONY BEST 21. Lord Hankey, 1877–1963 and R.A. Butler, 1902–1982 and the ‘Appeasement of Japan, 1939–1941 Foreign Secretary (Butler), 1963–64 ANTONY BEST 22. Ernest Bevin, 1881–1951 Foreign Secretary, 1945–51 ROGER BUCKLEY 23. Winston Churchill, 1874–1965 Prime Minister, 1940–45, 1951–55 EIJI SEKI 24. Britain and Japan, 1950–1990: A British Perspective HUGH CORTAZZI 25. Sir Alec Douglas-Home, 1903–1995 [14th Earl of Home] Foreign Secretary, 1960–63, 1970–74 Prime Minister, 1963–64 ANTONY BEST 26. Edward Heath, 1916–2005 Prime Minister, 1970–74 HUGH CORTAZZI 27. Margaret Thatcher, 1925–2013 [Baroness Thatcher] Prime Minister, 1979–90 HUGH CORTAZZI 28. Sir Geoffrey Howe, 1926–2015 [Lord Howe of Aberavon] Foreign Secretary, 1983–89 DAVID WARREN Bibliography Index

Japan Society

Anthony Best, Hugh Cortazzi (eds)

British Foreign Secretaries and Japan, 1850-1990

Aspects of the Evolution of British Foreign Policy

This book reviews the role of British Foreign Secretaries in the formulation of British policy towards Japan from the re-opening of Japan in the middle of the nineteenth century to the end of the twentieth century. It also takes a critical look at the history of British relations with Japan over these years. Beginning with Lord John Russell (Foreign Secretary 1859-1865) and concluding with Geoffrey Howe (Secretary of State for Foreign & Commonwealth Affairs, 1983-1989), the volume also examines the critical roles of two British Prime Ministers in the latter part of the twentieth century, Edward Heath and Margaret Thatcher, who ensured that Britain recognized both the reality and the opportunities for Britain resulting from the Japanese economic and industrial phenomenon. Heath’s main emphasis was on opening the Japanese market to British exports. Thatcher’s was on Japanese investment. This volume is a valuable addition to the Japan Society’s series devoted to aspects of Anglo-Japanese relations which includes ten volumes of Britain & Japan: Biographical Portraits as well as British Envoys in Japan.

Anthony Best

Antony Best is an Associate Professor in International History at the London School of Economics. His most recent single-authored book is British Intelligence and the Japanese Challenge in Asia, 1914-1941 (Basingstoke: Palgrave 2002), and he is one of the co-authors of International History of the Twentieth Century and Beyond, 3rd edition (London: Routledge, 2015).

Hugh Cortazzi

Sir Hugh Cortazzi, GCMG, was British Ambassador to Japan 1980-1984 and Chairman of The Japan Society, London, 1985-1995. He has written extensively on Japan. His many books include Isles of Gold: Antique Maps of Japan (1983), The Japanese Achievement (1990) and his memoir Japan and Back and Places Elsewhere (1998). He compiled and edited seven volumes of Britain & Japan: Biographical Portraits, most recently volume X (2016).