The Rise of the Ni‘matull.h. Order
The Rise of the Ni‘matull.h. Order
Shi'ite Sufi Masters against Islamic Fundamentalism in 19th-Century Persia
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Table of Contents
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Table of Contents
System of Transliteration
Chapter One
Introduction: 19th-Century Persian Sufism in its Shi..ite Milieu
The Rise of the Safavids and the Establishment of Shi’ism in Iran
The Rise of the Q.j.r Dynasty
Chapter Two
Jurists and Sufis from the Mongols to the
Sufism in Mongol Iran
The Jurist-Sufi Conflict in Timurid and Turkemen Persia
Shi‘ism and Sufism in Safavid Iran
The Suppression of the Sufi Orders under the Safavids
Sufism and Clerical Shi‘ism during the Afsharids and the Zands
Chapter Three
The Ni.matull.h. Order from Ma...m .Al..Al. Sh.h to Mu.affar .Al. Sh.h
The Ni.matull.h. Persian Sufi Order and Ma...m .Al. Sh.h
The Anti-Sufi Movement of the Shi..ite U..l. Scholars
The Ni.matull.h. Sufi Order and N.r .Al. Sh.h
The Ni.matull.h. Sufi Order and Mu.affar .Al. Sh.h
Chapter Four
The Life and Works of .usayn .Al. Sh.h
The Socio-Political Situation of Sufism in Early 19th-Century Persia
Religious Opposition to Sufism in Early 19th-Century Persia
.usayn .Al. Sh.h: Preacher and Mystic
.usayn .Al. Sh.h and the Polemics of Henry Martyn
Refutations (jaw.b.yya) of Henry Martyn’s tracts
Mull. Mu.ammad Ri.. Hamad.n.
M.rz. Ab. al-Q.sim (Suk.t)
Al. N.r. (d. 1245/1830)
Mull. A.mad Nar.q. (d. 1245/1829)
Ab. al-Q.sim Qum. (d. 1231/1816)
.usayn .Al. Sh.h’s Response to Martyn (1248/1833)
Chapter Five
The Life and Works of Majdh.b .Al. Sh.h
The Life of Majdh.b .Al. Sh.h
Imitation (taql.d)
The ‘Divine Faculty’ (quwwa quds.yya)
Majdh.b’s Views about Shi..ite Extremism (ghuluww)
Contemplative Vigilance (mur.qaba)
The Spiritual Heart (qalb)
The Unity of Being (wa.dat al-wuj.d)
Heterodox and Orthodox Theories of the wa.dat al-wuj.d
The Heterodox School of the Unity of Being
The Orthodox School of the Unity of Being
Intuitive Philosophy (dhawq-i ta.aluh)
The Theory of Theophany (tajall.)
Two Types of Theophany
The Theory of Divine Light
Spiritual Disclosure (kashf)
Majdh.b’s view on Creation
The Spiritual Leaders: The Shi..ite
The Gnostics (.uraf.’)
Annihilation and Subsistence (fan.’ and baq.’)
Muslim Sects and Heretical Sufism
Majdh.b’s View of Shi..ism
Sunni Sufism
Heretical Sufism
Incarnationism (.ul.l) and Unificationism (itti..d) (Mystics United with God)
.Ushsh.q.yya (The Lovers)
Tan.sukh.yya (transmigration and reincarnation)
Chapter Six
The Life and Works of Mast .Al. Sh.h
The Life of Mast .Al. Sh.h
The Works of Mast .Al. Sh.h
Mast .Al. Sh.h’s Mystical Theology and Sufism
Mast .Al. Sh.h’s Views on Shi..ism
Sufi Apologetics
The Unity of Being (wa.dat al-wuj.d)
The Perfect Man (ins.n-i
Sainthood (wil.yat) and Prophethood (nubuwwat)
Divine Unity (taw..d)
Vision of God (ru’y. allah)
Knowledge (.ilm)
The Divine Faculty (quwwa quds.yya)
Imitation (taql.d)
The Spiritual Path (.ar.qat)
Master and Guide
The Muslims and the Faithful (mu.min)
The Tried and Tested Faithful Believer (mu.min
Authentic Sufis (..f.yya .aqqa)
The School of Illumination (ishr.q)
Intuitive Philosophy (dhawq-i ta’aluh)
Sufism and Pseudo-Sufism
Imitators of Sufis (mutishabih.n)
Upright Sufi Lookalikes ( resume
The False Sufi lookalikes (mutishabih.n-i
The Naqshband. Order
Mast Ali Sh.h and Jurist-Sufi Conflict in Q.j.r Iran
Chapter Seven
Conclusion: Ni.matullah. Shi.ite Sufism in Q.j.r Persia
The Intellectual Contribution of .usayn .Al. Sh.h to the Ni.matull.h. Order
The Intellectual Contribution of Majdh.b .Al. Sh.h to the Defence of

Reza Tabandeh

The Rise of the Ni‘matull.h. Order

Shi'ite Sufi Masters against Islamic Fundamentalism in 19th-Century Persia

"How were the Ni‘matull.h. masters successful in reviving Ni‘matull.h. Sufism in Shi‘ite Persia? This book investigates the revival of Ni‘matull.h. Sufi order after the death of the last Indian Ni‘matull.h. master, Ri.. ‘Al. Sh.h (d. 1214/1799) in the Deccan. After the fall of Safavids, the revival movement of the Ni‘matull.h. order began with the arrival in Persia of the enthusiastic Indian Sufi master, Ma‘..m ‘Al. Sh.h, during the last quarter of the eighteenth century. Later, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, Persian masters of the Ni‘matull.h. Order were able to solidify the order’s place in the mystical and theological milieu of Persia. Ma‘..m ‘Al. Sh.h and his disciples soon spread their mystical and ecstatic beliefs all over Persia. They succeeded in converting a large mass of Persians to Sufi teachings, despite the opposition and persecution they faced from Shi‘ite clerics, who were politically and socially the most influential class in Persia. The book demonstrates that .usayn ‘Al. Sh.h, Majdh.b ‘Al. Sh.h, and Mast ‘Al. Sh.h were able to consolidate the social and theological role of the Ni‘matull.h. order by reinterpreting and articulating classical Sufi teachings in the light of Persian Shi.‘ite mystical theology. "m

Reza Tabandeh

Reza Tabandeh received his PhD in Islamic Studies at the University of Exeter. He is currently a researcher on Islam and Sufism at Brock University, Canada.