Environmental Movements of India
Environmental Movements of India
Chipko, Narmada Bachao Andolan, Navdanya
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Table of Contents
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Foreword (Frances Moore Lappé)

Introduction: Three Grassroots Movements That Made a Global Impact
Principles of Environmental Philosophy
(1) Environmental Justice
(2) Intergenerational Equality
(3) Respect for Nature

1 Historical and Cultural Contexts in India
1.1 ‘Legal’ Destruction of India’s Forests
1.1.1 Acts Spark Peasant Protests
1.2 A Cultural Leader Emerges
1.2.1 Nonviolence and Gandhi’s Truth
1.2.2 How Chipko Followed Hinduism through Gandhi
1.2.3 How NBA Followed Hinduism through Gandhi
1.2.4 How Navdanya Followed Hinduism through Gandhi
1.2.5 Ecology and Social Justice
1.3 Conclusion

2 Chipko (Hug the Trees) Movement
2.1 A Physical Act of Survival
2.1.1 Sacred Texts and Social Justice
2.2 Preconditions and Formation of the Chipko Movement
2.2.1 Workers Organize for Nonviolent Action
2.2.2 Suffering by Means of Fasting and Foot March
2.3 Laudable Leaders
2.3.1 Women’s Role in the Chipko Movement
2.4 Critical Reception of the Chipko Movement
2.4.1 Questions about Chipko’s Popularity and Success
2.5 Conclusion

3 Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA): Save the Narmada
3.1 The Common Good in a Cost-Benefit Analysis
3.1.1 A Recursive History of Dam-Building
3.2 Regional Tensions from the Start
3.2.1 Amid Unrest, NGOs Align to Form NBA
3.2.2 National and Global Ramifications
3.3 Gender and the Narmada Case
3.3.1 Roles for Displaced Women
3.4 Gendered Dimensions of Neoliberal Capitalist Development
3.5 Reasons for the Success of the NBA
3.6 Conclusion

4 Navdanya (Nine Seeds) Movement
4.1 The Terrible Human Toll of GM Crops
4.1.1 Shifting Economics
4.2 Emergence of Anti-GM Movements
4.2.1 KRRS: Fiery Fields of Protest
4.2.2 Gene Campaign: Secure Food and Climate
4.2.3 Navdanya’s Holistic Approach
4.3 Food Sovereignty
4.3.1 Biodiverse Organic Farming
4.4 Biodiversity and Climate Change
4.4.1 Entrepreneurial Renewal
4.5 Navdanya and Social Justice
4.5.1 Civil Disobedience
4.5.2 Human Right to Food
4.5.3 Protecting the Global South
4.6 Shiva’s View of Earth Democracy
4.7 Genetically Modified Crops and the Future
4.8 Conclusion

5 Moral Implications of Environmental Movements
5.1 The Mesmerizing Power of Nonviolence
5.1.1 An Ecological Warrior
5.1.2 Truth at All Costs
5.2 Defining Views of Globalism
5.2.1 Technological Prowess
5.3 Core Values of Development Ethics
5.3.1 Environmental Justice for All
5.4 Ecofeminism: Ethics of Mutual Care and Connection
5.4.1 Ecofeminist Roots in the Chipko Movement
5.4.2 Southern Materialist Ecofeminism
5.5 Conclusion

6 Hindu Ethics and Ecology
6.1 Historical Background of Hinduism
6.2 Comparison of Hindu Dharma and Ethics in the West
6.2.1 The Gita and Dharma
6.2.2 The Ramayana and Dharma
6.2.3 The Yogasutra and Dharma
6.3 Hindu Dharma, Ecology, and Sustainability
6.3.1 Hindu Dharma and Applications in Ecologically Sustainable Development
6.4 Ways Hindus Connect to Nature
6.5 Influence of Symbolic Traditions on Some Environmental Cases
6.6 Is Hinduism Eco-Friendly?
6.7 Influence of Hinduism and Other Literature on Gandhi
6.8 Conclusion

Conclusion: The Symbiosis of Natural Resources and Local Needs
Theoretical Views of the Global South
Global Environmental Theory
Feminist Care Ethics
The Capabilities Approach
Ethics of Nonviolence


Reviews and Features

"Highlighting key environmental movements and persons, including Chipko, Medha Patkar, and Vandana Shiva, Krishna Mallick examines both traditional Hindu ethics and eco-feminism, noting linkages and affinities. Excellent for courses on religions and ecology, as well as Hinduism."
. Christopher Key Chapple, Doshi Professor of Indic and Comparative Theology at Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles "Krishna Mallick’s book is a welcome addition to a growing list of books on Indian environmental movements inspired by Hindu and Jain traditions and the three case-studies in this book are connected with case-studies of Bishnois, Swadhyayis, and Bhils, and others."
. Pankaj Jain, Professor and Head, Indic Studies, FLAME University, Pune, India

Krishna Mallick

Environmental Movements of India

Chipko, Narmada Bachao Andolan, Navdanya

In her detailed retelling of three iconic movements in India, Professor Emerita Krishna Mallick, PhD, gives hope to grassroots activists working toward environmental justice. Each movement deals with a different crisis and affected population: Chipko, famed for tree-hugging women in the Himalayan forest; Narmada, for villagers displaced by a massive dam; and Navdanya, for hundreds of thousands of farmers whose livelihoods were lost to a compact made by the Indian government and neoliberal purveyors of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Relentlessly researched, Environmental Movements of India: Chipko, Narmada Bachao Andolan, Navdanya presents these movements in a framework that explores Hindu Vedic wisdom, as well as Development Ethics, Global Environment Ethics, Feminist Care Ethics, and the Capability Approach. At a moment when the climate threatens populations who live closest to nature – and depend upon its fodder for heat, its water for life, and its seeds for food – Mallick shows how nonviolent action can give poor people an effective voice.
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Krishna Mallick

Krishna Mallick is Professor Emerita of Philosophy at Salem State University. She has co-edited two books along with Dr. Doris Hunter: An Anthology of Nonviolence: Historical and Contemporary Voices (Greenwood Press, 2002) and Nonviolence: A Reader in the Ethics of Action (University Press of America and Gandhi Peace Foundation, 1990). She has also published several articles on environmental issues in India. Her research interests are in the interdisciplinary area of philosophy, women’s studies, peace studies, and environmental studies.